Old despot

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Last seen on: –LA Times Crossword 26 Feb 21, Friday
The Washington Post Crossword – Feb 26 2021

Random information on the term “TSAR”:

Stramenopile is a clade of organisms distinguished by the presence of stiff tripartite external hairs. In most species, the hairs are attached to flagella, in some they to other parts of the surface of cells, and in some they have been secondarily lost (in which relatedness to stramenopile ancestors is evident from other shared cytological features or from similarity in the makeup of genes).

Members of the clade are referred to as ‘stramenopiles’. Most stramenopiles are single celled eukaryotes (protists), but stramenopiles include some multicellular algae and fungi. The group includes a variety of algal protists, heterotrophic flagellates, opalines and closely related proteromonad flagellates (all endobionts in other organisms); the actinophryid heliozoa, and oomycetes. The tripartite hairs have been lost in some stramenopiles – for example in most diatoms (although they still make the proteins – see below).

The term ‘Stramenopile’ was introduced in 1989. It identified a group that overlapped with the ambiguously defined heterokonts (heterokont). The term ‘Heterokontae” had been introduced 90 years earlier by Alexander Luther for algae that are now considered the Xanthophyceae. The meaning of the term ‘heterokont’ was not stable. As an example, Copeland used it to include the xanthophytes (using the name Vaucheriacea), a group that included what became known as the chrysophytes, the silicoflagellates, and the hyphochytrids. Copeland included unrelated collar flagellates (as the Choanoflagellata) in which he placed the bicosoecids, a type of stramenopile. He also included the haptophytes (Haptophyte). The consequence of multiple concepts for the taxon ‘heterokont’ was that the meaning could only be made clear by reference to its usage: Heterokontae sensu Luther 1899; Heterokonta sensu Copeland 1956, or later usage. The term ‘Heterokont’ lost its usefulness in critical discussions about the identity, nature, character and relatedness of the group.

TSAR on Wikipedia