Pertinent

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Possible Answers:

APT.

Last seen on: –LA Times Crossword 20 Jul 21, Tuesday
LA Times Crossword 5 Jan 20, Sunday

Random information on the term “Pertinent”:

Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has also been attributed to bacteria:63 and animals.:69

It can be understood as an emergent property from the synergies among: 1) data-information-knowledge; 2) software-hardware; and 3) experts (those with new insights as well as recognized authorities) that continually learns from feedback to produce just-in-time knowledge for better decisions than these three elements acting alone. Or more narrowly as an emergent property between people and ways of processing information. This notion of collective intelligence is referred to as “symbiotic intelligence” by Norman Lee Johnson. The concept is used in sociology, business, computer science and mass communications: it also appears in science fiction. Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, “It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I’ll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities.” According to researchers Pierre Lévy and Derrick de Kerckhove, it refers to capacity of networked ICTs (Information communication technologies) to enhance the collective pool of social knowledge by simultaneously expanding the extent of human interactions.

Pertinent on Wikipedia

Random information on the term “APT”:

APT or Automatically Programmed Tool is a high-level computer programming language most commonly used to generate instructions for numerically controlled machine tools. Douglas T. Ross is considered by many to be the father of APT: as head of the newly created Computer Applications Group of the Servomechanisms Laboratory at MIT in 1956, he led its technical effort. APT is a language and system that makes numerically controlled manufacturing possible. This early language was used widely through the 1970s and is still a standard internationally. Derivatives of APT were later developed.

APT is used to program numerically-controlled machine tools to create complex parts using a cutting tool moving in space. It is used to calculate a path that a tool must follow to generate a desired form. APT is a special-purpose language and the predecessor to modern CAM systems. It was created and refined during the late 1950s and early 1960s to simplify the task of calculating geometry points that a tool must traverse in space to cut the complex parts required in the aerospace industry. It was a direct result of the new numerical control technology becoming available at that time and the daunting task that a machinist or engineer faced calculating the movements of the machine for the complex parts for which it was capable. Its development was centered at the same MIT labs that hosted the Numerical Control and the Milling Machine Projects. APT also was Air Force sponsored and is notable for being the world’s first major cooperative programming venture, combining government agencies, universities, and a 14-company team organized within the Aircraft Industries Association [now Aerospace Ind Assoc.]. APT was created before graphical interfaces were available, and so it relies on text to specify the geometry and toolpaths needed to machine a part. The original version was created before even FORTRAN was available and was the very first ANSI standard. Later versions were rewritten in FORTRAN. As a U. S. government funded project APT was placed in the public domain.

APT on Wikipedia